The Architecture of Distributive Data
As we’ve discussed in our previous articles, blockchain uses a combination of Public Key Cryptography to encrypt data and Secure Hashing Algorithms to organize & index it on a ledger that is distributed across a network of many different computers, called nodes. Each new “block” is an entry in the ledger built of a piece of data secured with public key cryptography, the hash of the previous block, and its own hash.
100% DATA FIDELITY
Data Fidelity refers to the preservation of data when transmitted from one node to another, specifically, the integrity of a data backup.
Since each block uses the hash of the previous in the creation of its own hash, every new block is tied to the previous block.
This creates an unbroken chain of time-stamped entries of encrypted data into the ledger. Changing anything in any of the previous blocks or time stamped data leads to a cascade of differences in the hash values, making it easy to identify an edit anywhere in the chain.
In order to protect against tampering and ensure 100% data fidelity, the entire ledger is copied across many different nodes which must all agree on each new block before it’s added. That way, the effects of an attack at one computer cannot spread to the rest of the network. An attacker would have to control 51% of the network in order to change the historical record, an impossible task for all intents and purposes given thousands of independent machines distributed globally.
This gives blockchain the property of ‘immutability’— it is virtually impervious to edits, except for additions of new blocks.
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